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India-China border dispute: from Aksai China to Arunachal


India-China border dispute

image from wikipedia.org
The border dispute between India and China seems to be increasing once again.

There is news that China has increased the deployment of its patrol boats in Pangong Tso Lake in East Ladakh. Two weeks ago there was a clash between Indian and Chinese soldiers near this lake. This area is near the Line of Actual Control in Ladakh.

Earlier also there was news that both countries are increasing the presence of their troops on the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
India had said that some tents of the Chinese Army have been seen along the Galvan valley in Aksai China. After this, India has also increased the deployment of the army there. At the same time, China alleges that India is making illegal defense related construction near Galvan Valley.

India and China repeatedly get entangled in such disputes in different areas. What is the reason for this?
Years old border dispute

First of all, you should know that India shares a 3,488 km border with China. This border passes through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. It is divided into three sectors - Western Sector ie Jammu and Kashmir, Middle Sector ie Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and Eastern Sector ie Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

However, the two countries have not yet fully demarcated. Because there is a boundary dispute between the two over many areas.

India claims Aksai China in the western sector, which is currently under Chinese control. During the 1962 war with India, China occupied this entire area.

At the same time, China claims Arunachal Pradesh in the eastern sector. China says that it is a part of southern Tibet. China also does not accept the McMahon Line between Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh. He says that when the agreement was signed by the representatives of British India and Tibet in 1914, then he was not present there. He says that Tibet has been a part of him, so he cannot take any decision himself.

Actually in 1914, Tibet was an independent but weak country. But China never considered Tibet as an independent country. In 1950, China completely took possession of Tibet.

Overall, China does not accept the McMahon line in Arunachal Pradesh and Aksai also rejects India's claim over China.

Line of actual control


Due to these disputes, there could never be a boundary between the two countries. However, to maintain the status quo, line of actuarial control ie LAC term was used. However, it is still not clear. Both countries tell their different lines of actual control.

Many glaciers, snow deserts, mountains and rivers fall on this line of actuarial control. There are many such areas along the LAC where tensions are often reported between the soldiers of India and China.

Pangong Tso Lake


The 134-km-long Pangong Tso Lake is located in the Himalayas at an altitude of more than 14,000 feet.

An area of ​​45 km of this lake falls in India, while 90 km area falls in China. The Line of Actual Control passes through this lake.

It is said that one-third of the cases of encroachment from China in the western sector occur near this Pangong Tso lake.

The reason for this is that there is no consensus on the Line of Actual Control between the two countries in this area. Both have set their separate LACs.
Therefore, in the disputed part, many times there are skirmishes between the soldiers of both countries, because they feel that the soldiers of the front country have come into their territory.

Strategically, this lake is also very important, because this lake comes in the way of Chushul valley, China can use this route to attack in India-occupied territory. This was the place from which China started its main offensive during the 1962 war. There have also been reports that in the last few years, China has also built roads along its side of Pangong Tso.

Galvan Valley

 Galvan Valley is disputed area in Aksai China. The Galvan valley is located near the Indo-China border between Ladakh and Aksai China.

Here the Line of Actual Control (LAC) separates China from India. This valley extends to southern Xinjiang in China and Ladakh in India.

SD Muni, a former professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University and an international affairs expert, points out that these areas are strategically important for India as it is bordering Pakistan, China's Xinjiang and Ladakh borders. Even during the war of 1962, this area of ​​the Galvan River was the main center of the war.

SD Muni says that China is calling the construction of India in the Galvan valley illegal because there has been an agreement between India and China that they will accept LAC and will not build new ones in it. But China has already done the necessary military construction there and now it talks about maintaining the current situation. To strengthen its position, now India also wants to build a strategic building there.

Doklam

 You will remember that in 2017 there was a lot of dispute between India and China regarding Doklam. Which lasted for 70-80 days, then sorted out the conversation.

The matter started when India protested against China's attempt to build a road in the plateau area of ​​Doklam.

By the way, Doklam is a dispute between China and Bhutan. But Sikkim lies close to the border and has a tri-junction point. Where China is also close. Both Bhutan and China stake their claim on this area and India supports Bhutan's claim.

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